Preliminary Remarks on the Subjects treated of in this Work --
Definition of the Terms Recent, Post-Pliocene, and Post-Tertiary
-- Tabular View of the entire Series of Fossiliferous Strata.
RECENT PERIOD -- DANISH PEAT AND SHELL MOUNDS
-- SWISS LAKE
Works of Art in Danish Peat-Mosses -- Remains of three Periods of
Vegetation in the Peat -- Ages of Stone, Bronze, and Iron
-- Shell-Mounds or ancient Refuse-Heaps of the Danish Islands
-- Change in geographical Distribution of Marine Mollusca since
their Origin -- Embedded Remains of Maminalia of recent Species --
Human Skulls of the same Period -- Swiss Lake-Dwellings built on Piles
-- Stone and Bronze Implements found in them -- Fossil Cereals and
other Plants -- Remains of Mammalia, wild and domesticated -- No
extinct Species -- Chronological Computations of the Date of the
Bronze and Stone Periods in Switzerland -- Lake -- Dwellings, or
artificial Islands called 'Crannoges,' in Ireland.
FOSSIL HUMAN REMAINS AND WORKS OF ART OF THE RECENT PERIOD -- continued.
Delta and Alluvial Plain of the Nile -- Burnt Bricks in
Egypt before the Roman Era -- Borings in 1851-54 -- Ancient Mouths of
the Valley of the -- Ohio -- Their Antiquity -- Sepulchral Mound at
Santos in Brazil -- Delta of the Mississippi -- Ancient
Human Remains in Coral Reefs of Florida -- Changes in Physical
Geography in the Human Period -- Buried Canoes in marine Strata near
Glasgow -- Upheaval since the Roman Occupation of the Shores of the
Firth of Forth -- Fossil Whales near Stirling -- Upraised marine Strata
of Sweden on Shores of the Baltic and the Ocean -- Attempts to compute
BONES OF MAN AND EXTINCT MAMMALIA IN BELGIAN CAVERNS.
Earliest Discoveries in Caves of Languedoc of Human Remains with Bones
of extinct Mammalia -- Researches in 1833 of Dr. Schmerling in the
Liége Caverns -- Scattered Portions of Human Skeletons
associated with Bones of Elephant and Rhinoceros -- Distribution
and probable Mode of Introduction of the Bones -- Implements of Flint
and Bone -- Schmerling's Conclusions as to the Antiquity of Man
ignored -- Present State of the Belgian Caves -- Human Bones recently
found in Cave of Engihoul -- Engulfed Rivers -- Stalagmitic Crust --
Antiquity of the Human Remains in Belgium how proved.
FOSSIL HUMAN SKULLS OF THE NEANDERTHAL AND ENGIS CAVES.
Human Skeleton found in Cave near Düsseldorf -- Its geological
Position and probable Age -- Its abnormal and ape-like
Characters -- Fossil Human Skull of the Engis Cave near
Liége -- Professor Huxley's Description of these Skulls --
Comparison of each, with extreme Varieties of the native Australian
Race -- Range of Capacity in the Human and Simian Brains -- Skull from
Borreby in Denmark -- Conclusions of Professor Huxley -- Bearing of the
peculiar Characters of the Neanderthal Skull on the Hypothesis of
POST-PLIOCENE ALLUVIUM AND CAVE DEPOSITS WITH FLINT IMPLEMENTS.
General Position of Drift with extinct Mammalia in Valleys --
Discoveries of M. Boucher de Perthes at Abbeville -- Flint Implements
found also at St. Acheul, near Amiens -- Curiosity awakened by the
systematic Exploration of the Brixham Cave -- Flint Knives in same,
with Bones of extinct Mammalia -- Superposition of Deposits in the Cave
-- Visits of English and French Geologists to Abbeville and Amiens.
PEAT AND POST-PLIOCENE ALLUVIUM OF THE VALLEY OF THE SOMME.
Geological Structure of the Valley of the Somme and of the surrounding
Country -- Position of Alluvium of different Ages -- Peat near
AbberilleIts animal and vegetable Contents -- Works of Art in Peat --
Probable Antiquity of the Peat, and Changes of Level since its Growth
began -- Flint implements of antique Type in older Alluvium
-- Their various Forms and great Numbers.
POST-PLIOCENE ALLUVIUM WITH FLINT IMPLEMENTS OF THE VALLEY OF THE
SOMME -- concluded.
Fluvio -- marine Strata, with Flint Implements, near Abbeville --
Marine Shells in same -- Cyrena Fluminalis -- Mammalia -- Entire
Skeleton of Rhinoceros -- Flint Implements, why found low down in
Fluviatile Deposits -- Rivers shifting their Channels -- Relative Ages
of higher and lower-level Gravels -- Section of Alluvium of St. Acheul
-- Two Species of Elephant and Hippopotamus coexisting with Man in
France -- Volume of Drift, proving Antiquity of Flint Implements --
Absence of Human Bones in tool-bearing Alluvium, how explained -- Value
of certain Kinds of negative Evidence tested thereby -- Human Bones not
found in drained Lake of Haarlem.
WORKS OF ART IN POST-PLIOCENE ALLUVIUM OF FRANCE AND
Flint Implements in ancient Alluvium of the Basin of the Seine -- Bones
of Man and of extinct Mammalia. in the Cave of Arcy -- Extinct Mammalia
in the Valley of the Oise -- Flint Implement in Gravel of same Valley
-- Works of Art in Post -- Pliocene Drift in Valley of the Thames --
Musk Buffalo -- Meeting of northern and southern Fauna --
Migrations of Quadrupeds -- Mammals of Amoor Land --
Chronological Relation of the older Alluvium of the Thames to the
Glacial Drift -- Flint Implements of Post -- Pliocene Period in Surrey,
Middlesex, Kent, Bedfordshire, and Suffolk.
CAVERN DEPOSITS, AND PLACE OF SEPULTURE OF THE POST-PLIOCENE PERIOD.
Flint Implements in Cave containing Hyena and other extinct Mammalia in
Somersetshire Caves of the Gower Peninsula in South Wales
-- Rhinoceros hemitoechus -- Ossiferous Caves near Palermo --
Sicily once part of Africa -- Rise of Bed of the Mediterranean to the
Height of three hundred Feet in the Human Period in Sardinia --
Burial Place of Post -- Pliocene Date of Aurignac in the South of
France -- Rhinoceros tichorhinus eaten by Man -- M. Lartet on extinct
Mammalia and Works of Art found in the Aurignac Cave -- Relative
Antiquity of the same considered.
AGE OF HUMAN FOSSILS OF LE PUY IN CENTRAL FRANCE AND OF
NATCHEZ ON THE MISSISSIPPI, DISCUSSED.
Question as to the Authenticity of the Fossil Man of Denise, near Le
Puy -- enVelay, considered -- Antiquity of the Human Race implied by
that Fossil Successive Periods of volcanic Action in Central
France -- With what Changes in the Mammalian Fauna they
correspond -- The Elephas Meridionalia anterior in Time to the
implement-bearing Gravel of St. Acheul -- Authenticity of the Human
Fossil of Natchez on the Mississippi, discussed -- The Natchez Deposit,
containing Bones of Mastodon and Megalonyx, probably not older than the
Flint Implements of St. Acheul.
ANTIQUITY OF MAN RELATIVELY TO THE GLACIAL PERIOD AND TO THE EXISTING
FAUNA AND FLORA.
Chronological Relation of the Glacial Period, and the earliest known
Signs of Man's Appearance in Europe -- Series of Tertiary Deposits in
Norfolk and Suffolk immediately antecedent to the Glacial Period
-- Gradual Refrigeration of Climate proved by the Marine Shells
of successive Groups -- Marine Newer Pliocene Shells of northern
Character, near Woodbridge -- Section of the Norfolk Cliffs --
Norwich Crag -- Forest Bed and fluvio-marine Strata -- Fossil Plants
and Mammalia of the same -- Overlying Boulder Clay and contorted Drift
-- Newer freshwater Formation of Mundesley compared to that of Hoxne --
Great Oscillations of Level implied by the Series of Strata in the
Norfolk Cliffs -- Earliest known Date of Man long subsequent to the
existing Fauna and Flora.
CHRONOLOGICAL RELATIONS OF THE GLACIAL PERIOD AND THE EARLIEST SIGNS OF
MAN'S APPEARANCE IN EUROPE.
Chronological Relations of the Close of the Glacial Period and the
earliest geological Signs of the Appearance of Man -- Effects of
Glaciers and Icebergs in polishing and scoring Rocks -- Scandinavia
once encrusted with ice like Greenland -- Outward Movement of
Continental Ice in Greenland -- Mild Climate of Greenland in the
Miocene Period -- Erratics of recent Period in Sweden
-- Glacial State of Sweden in the Post-Pliocene Period
-- Scotland formerly encrusted with Ice -- Its subsequent
Submergence and Re-elevation -- Latest Changes produced by Glaciers in
Scotland -- Remains of the Mammoth and Reindeer in Scotch Boulder
Clay -- Parallel Roads of Glen Roy formed in Glacier Lakes
-- Comparatively modern Date of these Shelves.
CHRONOLOGICAL RELATIONS OF THE GLACIAL PERIOD AND THE EARLIEST SIGNS OF
MAN'S APPEARANCE IN EUROPE -- continued.
Signs of extinct Glaciers in Wales -- Great Submergence of
Wales during the Glacial Period proved by Marine Shells --
Still greater Depression inferred from stratified Drift --
Scarcity of organic Remains in Glacial Formations -- Signs of extinct
Glaciers in England -- Ice Action in Ireland -- Maps illustrating
successive Revolutions in Physical Geography during the Post-Pliocene
Period -- Southernmost Extent of Erratics in England --
Successive Periods of Junction and Separation of England, Ireland, and
the Continent -- Time required for these Changes
-- Probable Causes of the Upheaval and Subsidece of the Earth's
Crust -- Antiquity of Man considered in relation to the Age
of the existing Fauna and Flora.
EXTINCT GLACIERS OF THE ALPS AND THEIR CHRONOLOGICAL RELATION TO THE
Extinct Glaciers of Switzerland -- Alpine Erratic Blocks on
the Jura -- Not transported by floating Ice --
Extinct Glaciers of the Italian Side of the Alps -- Theory
of the Origin of Lake-Basins by the erosive Action of Glaciers,
considered -- Successive Phases in the Development of
Glacial Action in the Alps -- Probable Relation of these to
the earliest known Date of Man -- Correspondence of the same with
successive Changes in the Glacial Condition of the Scandinavian and
British Mountains -- Cold Period in Sicily and Syria.
HUMAN REMAINS IN THE LOESS, AND THEIR PROBABLE AGE.
Nature, Origin, and Age of the Loess of the Rhine and Danube
-- Impalpable Mud produced by the grinding Action of
Glaciers -- Dispersion of this Mud at the Period of the
Retreat of the great Alpine Glaciers -- Continuity of the Loess
from Switzerland to the Low Countries -- Characteristic
organic Remains not Lacustrine -- Alpine Gravel in the Valley of
the Rhine covered by Loess -- Geographical Distribution of the Loess
and its Height above the Sea -- Fossil Mammalia
-- Loess of the Danube -- Oscillations in the Level
of the Alps and lower Country required to explain the Formation and
Denudation of the Loess -- More rapid Movement of the inland Country --
The same Depression and Upheaval might account for the Advance and
Retreat of the Alpine Glaciers Himalayan Mud of the Plains of the
Ganges compared to European Loess -- Human Remains in Loess
near Maestricht, and their probable Antiquity.
POST-GLACIAL DISLOCATIONS AND FOLDINGS OF CRETACEOUS AND DRIFT
STRATA IN THE ISLAND OF MÖEN, IN DENMARK.
Geological Structures of the Island of Möen -- Great Disturbances
of the Chalk posterior in Date to the Glacial Drift, with recent
Shells -- M. Puggaard's Sections of the Cliffs of Möen
-- Flexures and Faults common to the Chalk and Glacial
Drift -- Different Direction of the Lines of successive Movement,
Fracture, and. Flexure -- Undisturbed Condition of the Rocks in
the adjoining Danish Islands -- Unequal Movements of Upheaval in
Finmark -- Earthquake of New Zealand in 1855 --
Predominance in all Ages of uniform Continental Movements over those by
which the Rocks are locally convulsed.
THE GLACIAL PERIOD IN NORTH AMERICA.
Post-glacial Strata containing Remains of Mastodon Giganteus in North
America -- Scarcity of Marine Shells in Glacial Drift of
Canada and the United States -- Greater southern Extension of
Ice-action in North America than in Europe -- Trains of Erratic
Blocks of vast Size in Berkshire, Massachusetts -- Description of
their Linear Arrangement and Points of Departure -- Their
Transportation referred to Floating and Coast Ice -- General Remarks on
the Causes of former Changes of Climate at successive geological
Epochs -- Supposed Effects of the Diversion of the Gulf
Stream in a Northerly instead of North-Easterly Direction
-- Development of extreme Cold on the opposite Sides of the
Atlantic in the Glacial Period not strictly simultaneous --
Effect of Marine Currents on Climate -- Post-Pliocene Submergence of
RECAPITULATION OF GEOLOGICAL PROOFS OF MAN'S ANTIQUITY.
Recapitulation of Results arrived at in the earlier Chapters -- Ages of
Stone and Bronze -- Danish Peat and Kitchen-Middens --
Swiss Lake-Dwellings -- Local Changes in Vegetation and in the wild and
domesticated Animals and in Physical Geography coeval with the Age of
Bronze and the later Stone Period -- Estimates of the
positive Date of some Deposits of the later Stone Period --
Ancient Division of the Age of Stone of St. Acheul and Auriguac
-- Migrations of Man in that Period from the Continent to England
in Post-Glacial Times -- Slow Rate of Progress in barbarous
Ages -- Doctrine of the superior Intelligence and Endowments of the
original Stock of Mankind considered -- Opinions of the Greeks
and Romans, and their Coincidence with those of the modern
Progressionist -- Early Egyptian Civilisation and its Date
in comparison with that of the First and Second Stone Periods.
THEORIES OF PROGRESSION AND TRANSMUTATION.
Antiquity and Persistency in Character of the existing Races of Mankind
-- Theory of their Unity of Origin considered -- Bearing of the
Diversity of Races on the Doctrine of Transmutation -- Difficulty of
defining the Terms 'Species' and 'Race' -- Lamarck's Introduction
of the Element of Time into the Definition of a Species --
His Theory of Variation and Progression Objections to his Theory, how
far answered -- Arguments of modern Writers in favour of Progression in
the Animal and Vegetable World -- The old Landmarks
supposed to indicate the first Appearance of Man, and of different
Classes of Animals, found to be erroneous -- Yet the Theory
of an advancing Series of organic Beings not inconsistent with
Facts -- Earliest known Fossil Mammalia of low Giade
-- No Vertebrata as yet discovered in the oldest fossiliferous
Rocks -- Objections to the Theory of Progression considered
-- Causes of the Popularity of the Doctrine of Progression as
compared to that of Transmutation.
ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY VARIATION AND NATURAL SELECTION.
Mr. Darwin's Theory of the Origin of Species by Natural Selection
-- Memoir by Mr. Wallace -- Manner in which favoured Races
prevail in the Struggle for Existence -- Formation of new
Races, by breeding -- Hypotheses of definite and indefinite
Modifiability equally arbitrary -- Competition and Extinction of
Races -- Progression not a necessary Accompaniment of Variation
Distinct Classes of Phenomena which natural Selection explains
-- Unity of Type, rudimentary Organs, Geographical Distribution,
Relation of the extinct to the living Fauna and Flora, and mutual
Relations of successive Groups of Fossil Forms -- Light thrown on
Embryological Development by natural Selection -- Why large
Genera have more variable Species than small ones -- Dr.
Hooker on the Evidence afforded by the Vegetable Kingdom in favour of
Creation by Variation -- Steenstrup on alternate Generation
-- How far the Doctrine of independent Creation is opposed to the Laws
now governing the Migration of Species.
 Every naturalist admits that there is a general tendency in
animals and plants to vary; but it is usually taken for granted, though
we have no means of proving the assumption to be true, that there are
certain limits beyond which each species cannot pass under any
circumstances, or in any number of generations. Mr. Darwin and Mr.
Wallace say that the opposite hypothesis, which assumes that every
species is capable of varying indefinitely from its original type, is
not a whit more arbitrary, and has this manifest claim to be preferred,
that it will account for a multitude of phenomena which the ordinary
theory is incapable of explaining.
OBJECTIONS TO THE HYPOTHESIS OF TRANSMUTATION CONSIDERED.
Statement of Objections to the Hypothesis of Transmutation founded on
the Absence of intermediate Forms -- Genera of which the
Species are closely allied -- Occasional Discovery of the missing
Links in a Fossil State -- Davidson's Monograph on the
Brachiopoda -- Why the Gradational Forms, when found, are
not accepted as Evidence of Transmutation -- Gaps caused by
Extinction of Races and Species -- Vast Tertiary Periods
during which this Extinction has been going on in the Fauna and Flora
now existing -- Genealogical Bond between Miocene and recent Plants and
Insects -- Fossils of Oeninghen -- Species of Insects
in Britain and North America represented by distinct Varieties --
Falconer's Monograph on living and fossil Elephants -- Fossil
Species and Genera of the Horse Tribe in North and South America
-- Relation of the Pliocene Mammalia of North America, Asia, and
Europe -- Species of Marnmalia, though less persistent than
the Mollusca, change slowly -- Arguments for and against Transmutation
derived from the Absence of Manimalia in Islands -- Imperfection of the
Geological Record -- Intercalation of newly discovered
Formation of intermediate Age in the chronological Series --
Reference of the St. Cassian Beds to the Triassic Periods --
Discovery of new organic Types -- Feathered Archaeopteryx of the Oolite.
ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGES AND SPECIES COMPARED.
Aryan Hypothesis and Controversy -- The Races of Manldnd change
more slowly than their Languages -- Theory of the gradual
Origin of Languages -- Difficulty of defining what is meant by a
Language as distinct from a Dialect -- Great Number of
extinct and living Tongues -- No European Language a
Thousand Years old -- Gaps between Languages, how caused
-- Imperfection of the Record -- Changes always in
Progress -- Struggle for Existence between Rival Terms and
Dialects -- Causes of Selection -- Each
Language formed slowly in a single geographical Area -- May
die out gradually or suddenly -- Once lost can never be
revived -- Mode of Origin of Language and Species a
Mystery -- Speculations as to the Number of original Languages or
BEARING OF THE DOCTRINE OF TRANSMUTATION ON THE ORIGIN OF
MAN, AND HIS PLACE IN THE CREATION.
Whether Man can be regarded as an Exception to the Rule if the Doctrine
of Transmutation be embraced for the rest of the Animal Kingdom --
Zoological Relations of Man to other Mammalia Systems of
Classification -- Term Quadrumanous, why deceptive --
Whether the Structure of the Human Brain entitles Man to form a
distinct Sub-class of the Mammalia -- Intelligence of the
lower Animals compared to the Intellect and Reason of Man -- Grounds on
which Man has been referred to a distinct Kingdom of Nature --
Immaterial Principle common to Man and Animals -- Non-discovery of
intermediate Links among Fossil Anthropomorphous Species --
Hallam on the compound Nature of Man, and his Place in the
Creation -- Great Inequality of mental Endowment in
different Human Races and Individuals developed by Variation and
ordinary Generation -- How far a corresponding Divergence in physical
Structure may result from the Working of the same Causes --
A. On the Supposed Traces of the
Coexistence of Man with Elephas
meridionalis Before the Glacial Epoch at Saint-Prest, near
B. (p. 145) Alleged Discovery of a Human Jaw Bone in the Higher-level
Drift of Moulin Quignon, in the Suburbs of Abbeville.
B* (p. 163) Discovery of Flint Implements in Higher-level Gravel at
Fisherton, near Salisbury.
C. (p. 183-186) Additional Observations by M. Lartet on the Results of
his Third Visit to the Sepulchral Vault of Aurignac.
D. (p. 204) Chronology of the Delta of the Mississippi.
E. (p. 235) Continental Ice of Greenland.
F. (p. 247) Phenomena of the Glacial Drift of Scotland. By Archibald
G. (p. 268) Discovery in Wales of Fifty-four Species of Fossil Shells
in the Glacial Drift of Moel Tryfaen (or Tryfane) at the height of 1360
feet above the Sea.
H. On the Existence of Marine Animals at Various Depths in Seas
Abounding in Floating Ice, in Arctic and Antarctic Regions.
I. (p. 279, Fig. 41) Explanation of the Corrections made in the Map of
the North-west of Europe, Showing the Extent of Sea Which Would be
Converted into Land by an Upheaval of Six Hundred Feet.
K. (p. 338) Remains of a Human Skeleton found by M. Boué in the
Loess of the Rhine in 1823.
L. (p. 368) Submergence of the Sahara in the Post-Pliocene Period.
M. (p. 485) Structure of the Brain in Man and the Apes.